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g]l6kmn ;+rfng u/]sf kl/of]hgf cGtu{t ;g\ @))(@)!# ;Dd ;DkGg ul/Psf] u'0ffTds sfo{qmdx?M

g]l6kmn] ;+rfng u/]sf sfo{qmd e]nf, uf]i7L, tflnd, ef}lts k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0f, k|j4{gfTds sfo{x?, kmf]x/ Joj:yfkg ;r]tgf sfo{qmd tyf cleofg h:tf ;Dk"0f{ sfo{qmdx? jftfj/0f tyf ko{6g ljsf; ;+u ;DjGwLt 5g\ . ;+rflnt sfo{qmdx?n] jftfj/0f ;+/If0f / ko{6g ljsf; ug{ :yflgo ;+:yf, ;/f]sf/jfnf lgsfox?nfO{ kxnsbdL lng o; ls;Ldsf] sfo{qmdx?n] d4t k'u]sf] / To; lbzflt/ kl/nlIft 5 . tn pNn]lvt ;Dk"0f{ sfo{qmdx? NTOEDP kl/of]hgf cGtu{t ;g\ @))(@)!# ;Dd ;DkGg ul/Psf] xf] .

ef}lts k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0f M :jfut 4f/

;'Gb/Lhn l6s6 sfpG6/ glhsdf sf7df08f} pkTosf ;f:s[lts kbdfu{ Kathmandu valley Cultural Trekking trail (KVCTT) gfd lbO{ kl/of]hgfsf] klxnf] jif{ @))( df jftfj/0f d}lq :jfut 4f/ lgdf{0f u/]sf] lyof] . kbdfu{sf] gfdfs/0f kl5 xfn cfP/ KVCTT Pp6f :yflkt gfd (Brand name) jlg ;s]sf] 5 . ko{6g If]qdf s[oflzn /x]sf] lghL, ;/sf/L u}/;/sf/L, :yflgo ;d'bfo / ko{6s dfem KVCTT gfdn] klxrfg jgfO{ ;s]sf] 5 . lgs'~hsf] k|j]z 4f/sf] ?kdf /x]sf] :jfut 4f/jf6 cfpg] hfg] :jb]zL ljb]zL ko{6sx?n] g]l6kmsf] ;xof]usf] jf/]df yfxf kfpg] u/]sf 5g\ :jfut 4f/sf] l8hfO{g / lgdf{0fsf] ;Dk"0f{ sfo{sf] kxn g]l6kmn] u/]sf] lyof] :jfut 4f/sf] ;+/If0f lzjk'/L gfuf{h'g /fli6|o lgs'~hn] ub}{ cfPsf] 5 .

ko{6g ;'rgf s]Gb|

ko{6g ;'rgf s]Gb| gu/sf]6 / ;'Gb/Lhndf ;+rflnt /x]sf] 5 . gu/sf]6 ;'rgf s]Gb| xf]6n Joj;foLx?sf] dxTjk"0f{ ;xof]u / ;+:yfsf] s[oflzntfn] lg/Gt/tf x'g] b]lvG5 eg] ;'Gb/Lhnsf] ;'rgf s]Gb| k|lt:yflgo xf]6n Joj;foL / :yflgo ;+:yfsf] rf;f]df sld /x]sf] kfO{G5 . ;'Gb/Lhnsf] s]Gb|nnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbgsf] nfuL kxn eO{/x]sf] 5 .

sf7df08f} jf6 !% lsnf]ld6/ pQ/ k"j{df lzjk'/L gfu{h'g /fli6|o lgs'~h /fhwflgsf] ;j} eGbf glhsdf kg]{ of] lgs'~h h}ljs ljljwtf jftfj/0fLo >f]tsf] lx;fjn] ;DkGg 5 . To;} ul/ gu/sf]6 klxrfg jgfO{;s]sf] ko{6sx?sf] k|d'v uGtJosf] ?kdf ljsf; eO{;s]sf] :yfg xf] .  cfGtl/s / jfXo b'j} vfn] ko{6ssf nfuL of] lzjk'/L /fli6|o lgs'~h / gu/sf]6 lgs} cfs{ifs| jGb} uPsf] 5 . k|fs[lts >f]tn] ;DkGg of] If]qdf j:g] dflg;x?sf] b}lgs lhjg eg] Tolt ;'vb 5}g\ . lgs'~hdf jl/kl/ j;f]jf; ug]{ jfl;Gbfx?sf] k|d'v k]zf eg]sf] s[lif ePklg lgs'~h jl/k/L h+unL hgfj/x?n] gi6 ul//x]sf]n]] s[lif plgx?sf] nfuL lhjg u'hf/sf] jf6f] x'g ;ls/x]sf] 5}g\ . lgs'~hdf /x]sf] jGohGt' s[lif k]zfsf] nfuL ;d:of xf] eg] o;nfO{ ko{6g ljsf;sf] b[li6sf]0fn] x]g]{ xf] eg] cj;/ xf] . ;'Gb/Lhn nf8=6f8= / x]nDj' hfg] d'Vo kbdfu{sf] d'n 9f]sf ePklg clxn] ;Dd ko{6sx?sf] nfuL ;'rgf lbg] s'g} Joj:yf x'g;s]sf] 5}g\ . h;n] ubf{ lgs'~h leqsf] ko{6s b[li6sf]0fn] dxTj /fVg] jgh+un, r/fr'?uL, jGohGt', hnfwf/, u|fld0f j:tL cflbsf] ljifodf hfgsf/L gkfO/x]sf] cj:yf ePsf]n] ko{6sx? O{R5f cg';f/ ;do ljtfpg kfO{/x]sf 5}gg\ . To;} ul/ gu/sf]6df cfpg] ko{6sx?sf] nfuL ;'rgf lbg] s'g} lgsfo gePsf] cj:ydf ;'rgf s]Gb| :yfkgfn] oxfF cfpg] ko{6sx?nfO{ ;]jf pknJw u/fpb} cfPsf] 5 .

ko{6g lj>fd :yn lgdf{0f

sfo{If]qsf] ?kdf /x]sf] KVCTT dfu{df ko{6sx? nlIft ul/ s'g}klg lj>fd :yn gePsf]n] ko{6s / ko{6g Joj;foLx?n] o;sf] cfjZostf dx;'; u/]sf lyP . g]l6kmn] ko{6sn] kbofqf ubf{ kfgL,3fd,xfjfx'/L jf6 jRg cf/fd ug{ / Eo" x]g{ ;'ljwf k'uf]; eGg] pB]Zon] !& j6f ko{6s lj>fd :yn lgdf{0f u/]sf] 5 . lgld{t lj>fd :ynjf6 ko{6s / :yflgo ;d'bfon] kmfO{bf lnPsf 5g\ . o;sf] ;+/If0f ;Dj{4g ug]{ sfo{sf] lhDd]jf/L :yflgo ;+:yfn] lnPsf] 5 .

;fj{hlgs zf}rfno lgdf{0f

ko{6sx? kbofqf ubf{ zf}rfno gePsf] sf/0fn] ef]Ug' kg]{ sl7gfO{nfO{ ;dfwfg ug{ / hyfefjL x'g] kmf]x/df sld Nofpg] pB]Zon] g]l6kmsf] ;xof]udf ljleGg :yfgdf ;j{hlgs zf}rfno lgdf{0f ug]{ sfo{ ;DkGg ePsf] 5 . zf}rfno lgdf{0fn] ko{6s / :yflgo ;d'bfo b'j}nfO{ ;'ljwf ePsf] 5 .

kbdfu{ dd{t

kbdfu{x? 7'nf] kfgL k/]/ lju|Lg], df]6/jf6f] lgdf{0f x'bf kbdfu{df gsf/fTds c;/ k'uL Iflt k'Ug] ePsf]n] k|To]s jif{ kbdfu{ g]l6kmsf] ;xof]u / :yflgo ;+:yfsf] ;s[otfn] dd{t ug]{ sfo{ x'b} cfPsf] 5 . kbdfu{ dd{tn] ko{6snfO{ lx8g ;xh x'g], b'3{6gf x'gjf6 hf]ufpg d4t k'u]sf] 5 .

kbdfu{ lrGx -sf7 vf]k]/ / h:tf kftfdf k]G6 u/]/_

o; kbdfu{df ofqf ug]{ ko{6sx? kbdfu{ lrGxsf] cefjn] w]/}k6s w]/} ko{6sx? x/fpg] u/]sf] cgfjZos b'Mv kfpg] u/]sf] b]lvGYof] . o; ;d:ofnfO{ ;Djf]wg ug{sf] lgldQ kbdfu{ el/ kbdfu{ lrGx /fVg] sfo{nfO{ g]l6kmn] @))( b]lvg} z'? u/]sf] lyof] . k|To]sf jif{ kbdfu{ lrGxx? ylkg] u/]sf 5 . kbdfu{n] ko{6sx?nfO{ ;dodf ;'l/Ift ?kn] uGtJodf k'Ug d4t k'u]sf] . kbdfu{df /flvPsf] lrGxx? x/fpg], ljufl/lbg] ;d:of d'nt :yflgo ;d'bfosf o'jfx?jf6 x'g] u/]sf] kfO{G5 . o;sf] nfuL :yflgo ;+:yfn] ;r]t jgfpg] sfo{nfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg'kg]{ b]lvG5 eg] lrGx /fVg] sfo{nfO{ klg lgoldttf lbg cfjZos b]lvG5 .

g]l6kmn] ;+rfng u/]sf sfo{qmd e]nf, uf]i7L, tflnd, ef}lts k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0f, k|j4{gfTds sfo{x?, kmf]x/ Joj:yfkg ;r]tgf sfo{qmd tyf cleofg h:tf ;Dk"0f{ sfo{qmdx? jftfj/0f tyf ko{6g ljsf; ;+u ;DjGwLt 5g\ . ;+rflnt sfo{qmdx?n] jftfj/0f ;+/If0f / ko{6g ljsf; ug{ :yflgo ;+:yf, ;/f]sf/jfnf lgsfox?nfO{ kxnsbdL lng o; ls;Ldsf] sfo{qmdx?n] d4t k'u]sf] / To; lbzflt/ kl/nlIft 5 . tn pNn]lvt ;Dk"0f{ sfo{qmdx? NTOEDP kl/of]hgf cGtu{t ;g\ @))(@)!# ;Dd ;DkGg ul/Psf] xf] .

kbdfu{ gS;f lgdf{0f

sf7df08f} pkTosf ;f:s[lts kbdfu{ cGtu{t kg]{ lzjk'/L gfuf{h'g /fli6|o lgs'~h leqsf] kbdfu{sf] k|j4{g sfo{df kbdfu{sf] gS;fsf] dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf x'g] ePsf]n] g]l6kmn] kbdfu{ gS;fsf] nfuL lxdfnog Dofk xfp; ;+u ;Nnfxf ul/ k|sfzgsf] nfuL cg'/f]w kl5 k|sfzgdf cfPsf] 5 . kbdfu{sf] gS;fn] ko{6sx?nfO{ cem 7'nf] /fxt k|bfg u/]sf] 5 . ko{6sx? gS;fsf] dfWodjf6 kbdfu{sf] dhf lng;Sg'sf] ;fy} ;dodf, ;'/lIft ?kn] uGtJodf k'Ug ;xof]u l;4 ePsf] 5 . kbdfu{sf] gS;f jhf/df ljqmLsf] nfUfL k|sfzn] /fv]sf] 5 .

xf]l8{8=jf]8{ -;'rgf kf6L_ 7'nf], demf}nf / ;fgf]

jftfj/0f ;+/If0fnfO{ ljz]if Wofg lbO{ jftfj/0f / ko{6g k|j4{g ljsf; ;+u ;DjGwL 7'nf,demf}nf / ;fgf xf]l8+8= jf]8{ ;'rgfkf6L jgfO{ kbdfu{sf] ljleGg :yfgdf :yflgo ;+:yfsf] ;xof]udf /fVg] sfo{ ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . ko{6snfO{ kbdfu{, h}ljs ljljwtf / uGtJosf] jf/]df ;lx ;'rgf lbg] pB]Zon] ;'rfgf kf6Lsf] lgdf{0f :yfkgf u/]sf]] xf] . ko{6sx?n] ?lr k"j{ cWoog u/]/ cfkm\gf] ofqfnfO{ /dfOnf], ;'/lIft / ;dodf ;DkGg ug{ d4t k'usf] 5 .

kbdfu{ gS;f xf]l8{8=jf]8{ ;'Gb/Lhn, lr;fkfgL, gu/sf]6 / w'lnv]ndf /flvPsf] 5 . /flvPsf] xf]l8{8= jf]8{ lzjk'/L g]zgn kfs{, w'lnv]n, lr;fkfgL / gu/sf]6sf] jf/]df hfgsf/L sf] jf/]df pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 eg] pNn]lvt uGtJox?df ko{6sn] ug{ ;lsg] ultljwLsf] ;DjGwL ;'rgf ;d]t xf]l8{8= jf]8{ /flvPsf] 5 . To;} ul/ ;'rgfkf6Ldf h}ljs ljljwtf, lxdfnsf] hfgsf/L, kbofqf ug]{ jf6f] / xf]6nsf] jf/]df hfgsf/L ;dfj]z ul/Psf] 5 . ko{6s / ko{6g Joj;foLsf d'Vo cfwf/ :tDe x'g lo b'j}n] ko{6g If]qsf] ljsf;sf nfuL cfcfkm\gf] :yfgjf6 dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf v]n]/ dfq lhDd]jf/ ko{6g ljsf;df of]ubfg lbg ;Sb5g\ . o;}n] lhDd]jf/ ko{6g cGtu{t ko{6s / ko{6g Joj;foLn] ckgfpg' kg]{ d'NodfGotfsf] jf/]df ;'rgfkf6Ldf pNn]v ug]{ sfo{ ePsf] 5 . o;n] ko{6s / xf]6n Joj;foL b'j}nfO{ lhDd]jf/ jgfpg d4t k'u]sf] 5 . zfvf kbdfu{ lgdf{0f, kbdfu{sf] :t/ lgwf{/0f ;d]t gS;f ul/Psf] 5 .

;f:s[lts klxrfgsf] ;+/If0f

g]l6kmn] tfdf8= hfltn] dgfpg] ;:s[lt kj{ nf];f/, tfdf8= ;d'bfosf] dfg] lgdf{0f ug]{ sfo{df s]lx :yfgdf ;xof]u u/]sf] 5 . :yflgo ;d'bfosf] 7'nf] nufgL /x]sf]df g]l6kmn] Doflr8=sf] ?kdf ;xof]u k'ofPsf] lyof] .

vfg]kfgL

kfgLsf] d'xfg ePsf] s]lx :yfgdf vfg]kfgL wf/f lgdf{0f u/]sf] 5 eg] s]lx :yfgdf vfg]kflg / zf}rfno b'j}nfO{ x'g]ul/ vfg]kfgLsf] Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 . ofqfdf lx8g] ko{6snfO{ vfg]kfgL pknJw ePsf] 5 .

;fd'bflos 3/

sfo{If]q leqsf] # :yfgdf ;fd'bflos 3/ lgdf{0fsf] nfuL g]l6kmsf] ;xof]u /x]sf] 5 . :yflgo ;+:yfsf] kxndf :yflgo >f]t kl/rfng jf6 cfly{s tyf ef}lts j:t' ;xof]u k|fKt u/]sf] / :yflgo ;d'bfosf] >dbfg ug]{ eP dfq g]l6kmsf] ;xof]u cfly{s k|fljlws ;xof]u pknJw u/fPsf] lyof]. d'nvs{sf] ;fd'bflos 3/ :yflgo ;d'bfosf lgdf{0f ePsf ;d'xsf] j}7s j:g], tflnd, 5nkmnsf] nfuL pkof]u x'g'sf] ;fy} sf];]nL 3/ / l6 xfp;sf] ?kdf ;+rfngdf /x]sf] 5 . gu/sf]6sf] ;fd'bflos 3/df ko{6s ;'rgf s]Gb|, sf];]nL 3/ / :yflgo ;+:yfsf] sfof{no ;+rfngdf /x]sf] 5 eg] lr;fkfgLdf ;fd'bflos 3/ lgdf{0fflwg cj:yfdf /x]sf] 5 . ;fd'bflos 3/n] :yflgo ;+:yf ;+rfngdf ;xof]u k'u]sf] b]lvG5 . eg] lbuf]?kdf ko{6g ljsf; / jftfj/0f ;+/If0f sfo{nfO{ cuf8L j9fpg ;xof]uL x'b} cfPsf] 5 .

sf];]nL 3/

d'nvs{sf] ;fd'bflos ejgdf :yfkgf ePsf] sf];]nL 3/ ;+rfngdf /x]sf] 5 . sf];]nL 3/ ;+rfngsf] nfuL kmlg{r/, x:tsnfsf ;fdfu|L / lrofk;nsf] nfuL rflxg] ;fdfu|Ldf g]l6kmsf] ;xof]u /x]sf] 5 . sf];]nL 3/ / lrof k;n ;+rfng ug{sf] nfuL Ps hgf :yflgo dlxnfsf] lhDd]jf/Ldf /x]sf] 5 . g]l6kmn] Go"gtd kfl/>lds pknJw u/fpb} cfPsf] ePklg @)!# kl5 pknJw u/fpg g;Sg] cj:yfdf :yflgo ;+:yfn] lgoldttf lbg] k|ltj4tf JoQm ug'{sf] ;fy} ljsNkx?sf] vf]lhdf /x]sf] 5 . sf];]nL 3/df ko{6sx? cfpg] lrof vfg] sf];]nL vl/b ug]{ sfo{ sld ePklg lj:tf/} o;sf] k|j4{g x'g] ljZjf; ul/Psf] 5 .

sf7df08f} pkTosf ;f:s[lts kbdfu{ ko{6sx?sf] nfuL k|d'v uGtJosf] ?kdf ljsf; eO{/x]sf] 5 . o; kbdfu{ jftfj/0f tyf ko{6g k|j4{gsf] d'Vo pB]Zon] s'g}klg ;fdflhs ;+:yf s[oflzn geO{/x]sf] cj:yfdf g]l6kmn] cfkm\gf] sfo{If]qsf] ?kdf o; If]qnfO{ lnP/ jftfj/0f tyf ko{6g ljsf;sf] nfuL k|d'v sfo{x? dWo kmf]x/ Joj:yfkg sfo{ Ps xf] . o; If]qdf cfGtl/s / jfXo ko{6gsf] cfudg s|dz jl9/x]sf] 5 . kbdfu{ / kbdfu{df kg]{ uGtJox?df kmf]x/ Joj:yfkgsf] cj:yf gfh's ePsf]n] :jefljs ?kdf ko{6sx?n] kmf]x/ Joj:yfkg sdhf]/ /x]sf] l6Kk0fL eO{/x]sf] ;Gbe{df kmf]x/ Joj:yfkg ;+:yfn] Pp6f r'gf}ltsf] ?kdf lnO{ sfo{ yfnlg u/of] . ;+:yfn] jftfj/0f ;+/If0f kmf]x/ Joj:yfkgdf ;r]tgf sfo{qmd, jftfj/0f ;+/If0f ;/;kmfO{ cleofg, cGts[of, kmf]x/ Joj:yfkgsf] nfuL ef}lts k"jf{wf/ OG;Lg]6/ j]:6ljg lgdf{0f, lgoldt ;/;kmfO{ ug]{ ;d'x / JolQmnfO{ lhDd]jf/L lbg] h:tf sfo{n] jftfj/0f ;+/If0f ;/;kmfO{df ;'wf/ ePsf] 5 . ;/;kmfO{sf] nfuL ePsf sfo{x? o; k|sf/ 5g\ .

j]:6 ljg -l;d]G6 l/8=_

kmf]x/ Joj:yfkgdf :yflgo sf]l;;x? ePklg k|efjsf/L x'g g;ls/x]sf] ;Gbe{df g]l6kmsf] k|j]z kl5 l;d]G6sf] l/8= jgfO{ ;j} uGtJo / kbdfu{df :yflgo ;+:yfsf] ;xof]un] /fVg] ;+/If0f ug]{ sfo{ ePsf] 5 . %@) j6f l/8= ljt/0f ul/Psf]df !)) j6f l/8= km'6]sf] lju|LPsf] 5 eg] cGo l/8=x? rfn' cj:yfdf 5g\ . l/8=df hDdf ePsf] kmf]x/ ;+sng stf{n] OG;Lg]6/df nu]/ hnfpg], hnfpg gx'g] nfO{ ;+sng ul/ 8lk8= ;fO{6df k7fpg] u/]sf] kfO{G5 / cGo kmf]x/sf] xsdf :yflgo lgsfosf] lhDdfdf lbg] jf 8lk8=;fO{6df Joj:yfkg ug]{ u/]sf] kfO{G5 . j]:6ljgn] kmf]x/ Joj:yfkg ug]{ sfo{nfO{ d4t k'Ug'sf] ;fy} ;/;kmfO{df j[l4 ePsf] 5 .

j]:6ljg jf;sf] 8f]sf]

sf7df08f} pkTosf ;f:s[lts kbdfu{sf] clwsf+z efu h+un, ;fgf jf6f]x?df kg]{ x'gfn] ;j} 7fpdf l;d]G6sf] l/+u pko'Qm / Jojxfl/s gePsf]n] jf;sf] 8f]sf]x? ?vdf em'08fP/ kmf]x/ ;+sng sfo{nfO{ g]l6kmn] ;xof]u ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . jfXo ko{6sx?n] o; ls;Ldsf] j]:6ljgsf] ;d'lrt ?kn] pkof]u u/]sf] kfO{G5 eg] cfGtl/s ko{6sn] sd u/]sf] kfO{G5 . 8f]sf]x? lju|fg], x/fpg] ;d:ofx? b]lvPsf] 5 . 

OG;Lg]6/ -kmf]x/ hnfpg]_

;s+lnt kmf]x/ hnfpgsf] nfuL g]l6kmn] ;j} kbdfu{df OG;Lg]6/sf] Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 . OG;Lg]6/ gx'bf hyfefjL cfuf] jfNbf jftfj/0f k|b'lift dfq geO{ d'nt h+un glhsdf kmf]x/ hnfpbf cfunfuL x'g jf6 hf]ufPsf] 5 .

Jfftfj/0f tyf ;/;kmfO{ ;DjGwL k|lzIf0f

;'Gb/Lhn M

ljBfly{x?nfO{ jftfj/0f tyf ;/;kmfO{ Joj:yfkg ;DjGwL tflnd, ljBfly{ ljr k|ltof]uLtfsf] cfof]hgf ul/ k'?:sf/ ljt/0f ul/Psf] 5. ljBfly{x?n] tflnd / k|ltof]uLtfjf6 k|fKt 1fgnfO{ Jojxf/df hf]8gsf] nfuL jftfj/0f tyf ;/;kmfO{ ;DjGwL e]nf uf]i7L /ofnLdf ;xefuL eO{/x]sf 5g\ eg] :s"n, ufpF / 3/ kl/;/df clejfjsnfO{ ;d]t kmf]x/ Joj:yfkg jftfj/0f ;+/If0fdf ;r]t jgfpb} ;/;kmfO{ / ;+/If0f sfo{df ;s[otf k"j{s s[oflzn /xb} cfPsf 5g\ . Osf] sNjnfO{ tflnd lbg] sfo{ sf7df08f} o"lge{l;6Lsf jftfj/0f ljifosf cWofkssf] g]t[Tjdf jftfj/0f ljifodf cWoog/t ljBfly{x?sf] e"ldsf /x]sf] lyof] . g]l6kmn] $ j6} :s"nsf ;Dk"0f{ sIffx?df lu|g jf]8{sf] pknJw u/fP/ ;xof]u u/]sf] 5 . lu|g jf]8{sf] Joj:yfn] ljBfly{ / lzIfsnfO{ rssf] k|of]un] :jf:Yodf kg{ hfg] c;/nfO{ /f]s]sf] 5 . lzIfs / ljBfly{x?nfO{ jftfj/0f ;DjGwL lbg] ljleGg cGt/s[of, tflndn] jftfj/0fL ;r]tgf clej[l4 eO{ :s"n kl/;/, ufpF;dfhnfO{ ;kmf /fVg] sfo{df lzIfs / ljBfly{x?n] kxnsbdL lnPsf] kfO{G5 h;n] ubf{ ;/;kmfO{df pNn]Vo 9+ujf6 ;'wf/ cfPsf] 5 .

Osf] sNj u7g, h'lgo/ $ l;lgo/ @

;'Gb/Lhn M

;'Gb/Lhn ufpF ljsf; ;ldltdf /x]sf] $ j6f :s"ndf ^ j6f Osf] sNj u7g ePsf] 5 . df=lj=/ lg=df=lj=:s"ndf h'lgo/ / l;lgo/ sNj lgdf{0f ePsf] 5 eg] k|f=lj=df h'lgo/ sNj u7g ePsf] 5 . ;j} :s"nsf sNj dfkm{t k':tsfno :yfkgfsf] nfuL k':ts pknJw u/fpg] sfo{ ePsf] 5  . sNjsf] lgoldt j}7s j:g] / :s"n leq / jflx/ jftfj/0f tyf ;/;kmfO{ ;DjGwL sfo{qmd ;+rfng ub}{ cfO{/x]sf] 5g\ .

jftfj/0f tyf ;/;kmfO{ ;r]tgf tyf cleofg

hgr]tgf /ofnL

;'Gb/Lhn, lr;fkfgL, gu/sf]6 / w'lnv]n M

jftfj/0f lbj;, kfgL lbj;, jGohGt' ;+/If0f lbj; nufot lbj;df hgr]tgf clej[l4 ug]{ pB]Zon] :yflgo ;/sf/L u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf ko{6s Joj;foL :yflgo ;d'bfosf] ;xefuLtfdf /ofnLsf] cfof]hgf x'g]u/]sf] 5 . o;n] :yflgo ;d'bfo, xf]6n Joj;foL / ljBfly{ ;r]tgf clej[l4 ug{ d4t k'u]sf] 5 eg] Jojxfl/s ?kdf cleofgn] dflg;nfO{ ;8ssf] kmf]x/ p7fpg ;xlhs/0f ul/ ;xof]u u/]sf] h;n] ubf{ cGo ;dodf klg kmf]x/ p7fpg' kmf]x/L sfo{ geO{ ;kmf sfo{ xf] eGg] ;Gb]z lbg ;kmn ePsf] 5 .

;/;kmfO{ cleofg

;'Gb/Lhn, lr;fkfgL, gu/sf]6 / w'lnv]n M

ko{6sx? cfpg] uGtJox?sf] kmf]x/ Joj:yfkg ug]{ pB]Zon] ;/;kmfO{sf] nfuL ljleGg sfo{qmd ;+rfng ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . kmf]x/sf] sf/0fn] ko{6sx? gcfPdf :yflgo JolQmsf] cfodf dfq k|efj gk/L /fli6|o cfodf ;d]t gsf/fTds c;/ k'Ub5 . kmf]x/sf] plrt Joj:yfkgsf] nfuL ;/;kmfO{ cleofg ljleGg /fli6|o lbj;, rf8kj{ kf/]/ cleofgsf] ?kdf ug{sf] nfuL pT;flx jgfpb} cfPsf] 5 . o; ls;Ldsf] ;/;kmfO{ cleofgn] lgoldt ;/;kmfO{ sfo{nfO{ lg/Gt/tf kfpg d4t k'u]sf] 5 .

s]; :68Lsf] ?kdf d'nvs{ dlxnf ;d'xn] u/]sf] ;/;kmfO{nfO{ lng ;lsG5 . ;/;kmfO{ cleofgsf] k|ltkmn d'nvs{sf dlxnf ;d'x ;/;kmfO{ cleofg ub}{ cfPkl5 @)!! Df lgoldt ;/;kmfO{ sfo{nfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbb} cfPsf 5g\ . ;+:yfn] pknJw u/fPsf] ;xof]unfO{ vr{ gul/ sf]if jgfP h;df dlxnf ;d'xsf k|To]s ;b:on] dfl;s ?kdf ?=%) ;+sngn] ubf{ sf]ifnfO{ j9fpg] sfo{ u/] . ;+slnt sf]if cfjZos k/]sf dlxnf ;b:onfO{ Go"gtd Jofhdf nufgL ul/G5 . cfpg] ;dodf jfXo ;xof]u k|fKt gePklg ;+slnt sf]ifn] dlxnfx?nfO{ ;/;kmfO{ sfo{nfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg] d4t k'Ug] 5 dlxnfx? o; sfo{nfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg] k|ltj4tf JoQm u/]sf 5g\ . o;} ul/ lr;fkfgL, gu/sf]6 / w'lnv]ndf kmf]x/ Joj:yfkg sfo{nfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg]5g\ o;sf] nfuL :yflgo ;+:yfn] ;/sf/L u}/;/sf/L lgsfo ;+u ;fem]bf/L ug{sf] nfuL kxn ub}{ cfPsf] 5 .

ljZj jftfj/0f lbj;df ;/;kmfO{ cleofg

g]l6kmsf] ;fem]bf/L ;+:yf ;'Gb/Lhn jftfj/0f tyf ko{6g ljsf; ;dfh, lr;fkfgL kof{j/0f tyf ko{6g ljsf; d~r, gu/sf]6 gfNb'd ko{6g ljsf; ;ldlt / w'lnv]n jftfj/0f tyf ko{6g k|j4{g ;ldltsf] kxndf :yflgo ;/sf/L u}/;/sf/L lgsfosf] ;xefuLtfdf ljZj jftfj/0f lbj;sf] lbg /ofnL, cGt/s[of sfo{qmd ul/ ;DkGg ePsf] lyof] . o; ls;Ldsf] lbj;sf] jftfj/0fsf] dxTj k|lt ;DjGwLt lgsfonfO{ u+le/tfk"j{s lnO{ of]hgf lgdf{0f ug{ / :yflgo ;d'bfonfO{ jftfj/0fsf] dxTj jf/] ;r]tgf clej[l4 ug{ d4t k'u]sf] 5 .

jftfj/0f / ;/;kmfO{ ;+u ;DjGwLt /fli6|o cGt/fli6|o lbj;df lgoldt ?kdf ;/;kmfO{ cleofg x'g] u/]sf] 5 eg] :yflgo d]nf, pT;j, rf8kj{x?df klg ;/;kmfO{ cleofg ;+rfng x'g] u/]sf] 5 .

sljtf tyf lgjGw k|ltof]uLtf

;'Gb/Lhn M

jfnjflnsfx?nfO{ Osf] sNj dfkm{t jftfj/0f tyf ;/;kmfO{sf] jf/]df sljtf,lgjGw,xflh/hjfkm / lrq k|ltof]uLtfsf] cfof]hgf ug{sf] nfuL ;+:yfn] ;xof]u k'ofpb} cfPsf] 5 . o; ls;Ldsf] k|ltof]uLtfn] jfnjflnsfx?sf] ;[hglzntf v'n]/ cfpg'sf] ;fy} plgx?df jftfj/0f tyf ;/;kmfO{df ljz]if ?lr / nufj j9g uO{ ;dfhsf cu'jfO{ ul/ o; If]qdf cfkm\gf] of]ubfg lbg ;Sg]5g\ .

j[Iff/f]k0f sfo{qmd

j[Iff/f]k0f / ;+/If0f sfo{qmd M w'lnv]n

w'lnv]n jhf/ If]qdf j[Iff/f]k0f / ;+/If0f sfo{nfO{ :yflgo ;+:yfn] ljz]if k|fyldstf ;fy cuf8L j9fPsf] 5 . sfo{qmdsf] z'? jif{b]lv nufPsf] lj?jfx? /fd|/L x'ls{Psf 5g\ . o;sf] ;+/If0fsf] nfuL dflnnfO{ dfl;s kfl/>lds lbP/ /flvPsf] 5 . :yflgo ;+:yfn] gu/kflnsf ;+u ;fem]bf/L ub}{ cfPsf] ;Gbe{df ;/sf/L u}/;/sf/L lgsfosf] ;xof]udf j[Iff/f]k0f / ;+/If0f sfo{n] lg/Gt/tf kfO{ w'lnv]n :jR5 ;kmf x/fe/f x'g] ljZjf; /x]sf] 5 .

gu/sf]6, j[Iff/f]k0f, -lztn k|bfg ug]{ / km'nhftsf lj?jf _

gu/sf]6 gfNb'd ko{6g ljsf; ;ldltsf] cfof]hgfdf g]l6km / eQmk'/ lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltsf] ;xof]udf j[Iff/f]k0f / ;+/If0f ug]{ sfo{ klxnf] / bf]>f] r/0f ;DkGg ePsf] 5 . ;+/If0fsf] nfuL :yflgo ;+:yfsf] k|ltj4 b]lvPsf] 5 .

lr;fkfgL, j[Iff/f]k0f -nflnu'/f; km'nsf] lj?jf_

lr;fkfgLn] ;Nnfsf] ?v d'lg #@)) lj?jf nfnLu'/f;sf] j[Iff/f]k0f ug]{ sfo{ u/]sf] lyof] . ;NnfnfO{ lj:tf/} x6fpg] ;f]r cg';f/ nfnLu'/f; ju}rf lgdf{0f ug]{ pB]Zon] ul/Psf] j[Iff/f]k0f ;Nnfsf] d'lg ePsf] / ;+/If0fsf] cefjn] o;jif{df cfP/ %)) lj?jf x'ls{/x]sf] b]lvG5 . ;NnfnfO{ ;dodf gx6fpg] xf] eg] jfls lj?jf dfl;g] jf/]df :yflgo hfgsf/ /x]tfkgL ;Nnfsf] lj?jf Ps}k6s w]/} df:g g;Sg] ePsf]n] lj:tf/} x6fpg] of]hgfdf /x]sf] b]lvG5 . cfufdL ;dodf yk nfnLu'/f;sf] lj?jf nufpg] of]hgfdf :yflgo ;+:yf /x]sf] 5 .

;'Gb/Lhn, j[Iff/f]k0f

;'Gb/Lhnsf] cf]v|]lg dfljdf sDkfp08 leq j[Iff/f]k0f ug]{ sfo{ ePsf] 5 . sDkfp08 leq ePsf]n] ufO{j:t'n] gf]S;fg ug]{ b]lvb}g . :s"nsf] of]hgf cg';f/ ;+/If0fsfo{nfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbPsf] kfO{G5 .

;'Gb/Lhndf ju}rf lgdf{0f

;'Gb/Lhsf] ljB't k|flws/0fsf] kvf{ndf hxf g]l6kmn] jftfj/0f ;+/If0f ko{6g k|j4{g ;DjGwL xf]l8{8= jf]8{ /fv]sf] 5 To; :yfgdf ;fgf] ju}rf lgdf{0f sfo{ ;DkGg ePsf] 5 . yk lj?jf nufpg] sfo{ eO{/x]sf] 5 . o; sfo{n] xf]l8{8= jf]8{sf] ;+/If0f x'g'sf] ;fy} ju}rfn] ;'Gb/tf k|bfg ug]{ b]lvG5 . ;+/If0fsf] nfuL ljB't k|flws/0f k|ltj4 /x]sf] 5 . o;n] cfpg] ko{6snfO{ :jfut u/]sf] ;d]t cg'e"lt ug{ kfpg] 5g\ .

ju}rf gu/sf]6

gu/sf]6sf] ;fd'bflos ejgsf] cuf8L ;fgf] ju}rf lgdf{0f ug]{ sfo{ ;DkGg ePsf] 5 .

g]l6kmn] ;+rfng u/]sf cfod"ns tflnd sfo{qmd

;+:yfn] k|j4{g ub}{ cfPsf] sf7df08f} pkTosf ;f:s[lts kbdfu{df kg]{ :yflgo ;d'bfosf] j}sNkLs lhljsf]kfh{g sfo{qmd cGtu{t ljleGg lsl;dsf cfod"ns tflnd k|bfg u/]sf] 5 . :yflgo ;d'bfon] k|fKt u/]sf] tflndjf6 l;s]sf] 1fg lzknfO{ Joj;foLs ?kdf cEof; ug{sf] lgldQ ;+:yfn] ljp k"hL ;d]t pknJw u/fpg], jf ljpljhg ef}lts ;xof]u ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . o; ls;Ldsf] ;xof]un] pTkfbg ug{ :yflgo ;d'bfonfO{ d4t k'u]sf] 5 .

tflnd

sGof Rofp tflnd M

s=;'Gb/Lhn d'nvs{

;'Gb/Lhn ufpF ljsf; ;ldltsf] d'nvs{ ufpFnfO{ nlIft ul/ sGof Rofp tflnd pknJw u/fPsf] lyof] . tflnd kl5 ;fd'lxs Rofp v]ltsf] nfuL g]l6kmn] 3'DtLsf]ifsf] ?kdf @ nfv pknJw u/fO{ pTkfbg ug]{ sfo{ z'? ePsf] 5 . klxnf] k6s sGof Rofp / bf]>f] k6s uf]j|] Rofp v]lt ul/ pTkfbg lng ls;fg ;kmn ePsf 5g\ . Rofpsf] 6x/fdf cfunfuL x'g', pTkfbgsf] dfqf sd eP/ 3'DtL sf]ifsf] ?kdf k|fKt u/]sf] /sd kmls{;s]sf] cj:yf 5}g\ t/ @ jif{sf] nfuL lnPsf] ;fk6L /sd @)!# leq pkTkfbg jf6 d'gfkmf sdfO{ :yflgo ;+:yfnfO{ 3'DtL sf]if kmsf{pg] of]hgfdf ls;fgx? /x]sf 5g\ . 3'DtL sf]ifjf6 cGo ls;fgx?n] klg cfocfh{gsf] sfo{nfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg] 5g\ .

v= w'lnv]n

g]l6kmn] w'lnv]nsf] ls;fgnfO{ nlIft ul/ klxnf] k6s sGof Rofp tflnd k|bfg u/of] . tflnd lnPsf dWo ^ hgfn] lgoldt Rofp pTkfbg ul/ ljs|L ul//x]sf 5g\ . g]l6km ;+:yfsf] sd{rf/L 4f/f z'? ul/Psf] Rofp v]lt :yflgo dlxnfx?n] clxn] ;Dd  lgoldt pTkfbg ul//x]sf 5g\ . pTkfbg ug]{ dlxnf ls;fgx? dWojf6 cu'jf ls;fgsf] ?kdf lrlgPsf dlxnfx?n] cGo ufpFdf uO{ tflnd lbg ;Sg] ePsf 5g\ . oxfFsf ls;fgx?n] uf]j|] Rofp pTkfbg ug{sf nfuL tflnd dfu eP jdf]lhd tflnd @)!# df pknJw u/fpg] sfo{ xfn} ;DkGg ePsf] 5 .

u= gu/sf]6

cuf{lgs t/sf/L v]lt ;d'xnfO{ ;xof]u k'ofpg] pB]Zon] Rofp v]lt tflnd pknJw u/fpg] sfo{ ePsf] lyof] . dlxnfx?s]f cToflws ;xefuLtf /x]sf] o; tflndn] cuf{lgs t/sf/L v]lt dlxnf ;d'xn] ;fd'lxs ?kdf Rofp v]lt pTkfbg z'? u/]sf 5g\ . pTkfbg ul/ kmfO{bf lnPklg Joj;foLs ?k cem} u|x0f ug{ ;s]sf] 5}g\ . lgoldt pTkfbg ug'{sf] ;fy} pTkfbgsf] dfqf j9fpg' kg]{ b]lvPsf] 5 . cuf{lgs t/sf/L v]lt dlxnf ;d'xn] o; ljifonfO{ dx;'; ul/ @)!# sf] z'?df of]hgf jgfPsf 5g\ .

df};dL t/sf/L v]lt tflnd

x}j'8= ufpF M

x}j'8= ufpFsf u"?8= ;d'bfon] JolQmut k|of]hgsf] nfuL t/sf/L v]lt pTkfbg ub}{ cfPsfx?nfO{ Joj;foL t/sf/L v]ltsf] nfuL df};dL t/sf/L v]lt tflnd k|bfg ul/of] . tflnd ;+u} plgx?nfO{ l;rfO{sf] nfuL kfO{k klg pknJw u/fOPsf] lyof] . x}j'8= ufpFsf @) 3/n] xfn ;Dd klg lgoldt t/sf/L v]lt jf6 pTkflbt t/sf/Lx? glhssf] jhf/ lr;fkfgLsf ko{6g Joj;foLx?nfO{ / :yflgo ;d'bfofnfO{ ljqmL ug]{ u/]sf] kfO{G5 .

ko{6sx? g]kfndf e|d0fsf] nfuL cfpbf xf]6nsf] ;/;kmfO{{ o'Qm vfgfsf] cefjn] cfpg ;Sg] ;d:ofx?nfO{ /f]syfd ug{sf] nfuL km'8 P08 xfO{lhg tflnd pknJw u/fPsf] 5 . s'g}klg ko{6s cfkm\gf] k"j{ of]hgf cg';f/ e|d0fsf] nfuL lg:s]sf] x'G5 xf]6nsf] jf;df ;/;kmfO{sf] sldn] vfgfn] ubf{ :jf:Yodf k|lts"n c;/ ePdf k'/} e|d0f /4 ug'{kg]{, ;do Joltt x'g] / cfly{s gf]S;fgL Joxf]g'kg]{ h:tf ;d:of cfpg] ePsf]n] of] tflnd ;+rfng ul/Psf] xf] . g]kfn ko{6g pBf]udf gsf/fTds ;Gb]z n}hfg ;Sg] ePsf]n] :jb]zL ljb]zL ;j}sf] nfuL vfgf / jf; / cGo ;]jfsf] u'0f:tl/otfnfO{ Wofg lbg] pB]Zon] ;+:yfsf] ;xof]udf lgDg tflndx? ;+rfng ug]{ sfo{ u/]sf] lyof] . 

km'8 P08 xfO{lhg tflnd

s=gu/sf]6

km'8 P08 xfO{lhg tflnd gu/sf]6sf] xf]6ndf sfd ug]{ sd{rf/L / xf]6n dflnsnfO{ pknJw u/fpg] sfo{ ePsf] lyof] . tflnddf xf]6n dflns / sd{rf/L ;+dnUg ePsfx?sf] km'8 P08 xfO{lhg tflndsf] k|efj rf8f] / k|efjsf/L b]lvof] eg] sd{rf/L dfq ;xefuL ePsf xf]6nx?sf] ;'wf/ l9nf] x'g uof] . o4kL gu/sf]6sf xf]6nx? Joj;foLs ?kdf nfdf] ;do ;Dd s[oflzn ePsf] Tolx dfqdf ko{6s cfpg] x'gfn] km'8 P08 xfO{lhg k|lt tflndn] cem ;hu ;r]t u/fPsf] kfO{G5 . 

v= lr;fkfgL

km'8 P08 xfO{lhg / j]s/L tflnd lr;fkfgLdf ;+rfngdf /x]sf] xf]6nsf] dflns / sd{rf/L k|fo cfkm} ePsf]n] k|fo h;f] xf]6n dflnsx?s} ;xefuLtf o; tflnddf /x]sf] lyof] . oxfFsf] xf]6nx?n] u'0f:tl/o ;]jf lbg ;Sg] ePklg Wofg lbg'kg]{ ljifo jf/]df yfxf gePsf]n] tflnd k|fKt u/]kl5 ;]jfsf] u'0f:t/, vfgfsf] kl/jfsf/df ;d]t ;'wf/ ePsf] b]lvG5 . xf]6n Joj;foLx?n] cfcfkm\gf] xf]6n lj:tf/ / gofF jgfpg]x?n] ;d]t tflndsf] k|efj b]Vg kfO{G5 .

u= lsr]g xfOlhg tflnd w'lnv]n

g]l6kmsf] ;xof]u / :yflgo ;+:yfsf] cfof]hgfdf ;]km P;f]l;o;gsf] cu'jfO{df @)!! Df lsr]g xfO{lhg tflnd w'lnv]ndf ;DkGg ePsf] lyof] . tflndn] ;xefuLx?sf] ;;fgf ljifox? Wofg lbg cfjZos g7flg/x]sfx?sf] nfuL lsr]g xfO{lhg tflndn] ;fgf ljifo eg]/ Jojf:yf ubf{ To;jf6 ;[hgf x'g] ;d:of ;frf] cy{df u+le/ x'g] /x]5 eGg] ljZjf; ;xefuLx?nfO{ ePsf] lyof] . o;}n] efG5f 3/sf] ;/;kmfO{sf] nfuL ckgfpg' kg]{ ljlw k|s[ofsf] jf/]df ;r]t x'g d4t k'u]sf] 5 o;n] efG5f 3/sf] ;/;kmfO{df ;'wf/ ePsf] jf/]df xf]6n dflnsx?n] ;d]t dx;'; u/]sf] kfO{G5 . o; tflndsf k|lzIfs u]6 sn]hn] pknJw u/fPsf] lyof] .

3= km'8 P08 e]lh6]jn sfle{8= tflnd

w'lnv]n M

@)!! Df km'8 P08 xfO{lhg tflnd k|fKt ul/;s]sf ;xefuLx?n] km'8 P08 e]lh6]jn sfle{8= tflnd dfu ePsf]n] @)!@ df pknJw u/fpg] sfo{ ePsf] 5 . of] tflndn] xf]6ndf sfo{/t sd{rf/Lx?n] cfkm\gf] lzknfO{ cem kl/is[t ug]{ cj;/ kfPsf 5g\ h;n] ubf{ ;]jfsf] u'0f:t/df ljsf; ePsf] 5 .

;fgf xf]6n tyf nh Joj:yfkg tflnd

d'nvs{ lr;kfgL M

;fgf xf]6n nh Joj:yfkg tflnddf ;;fgf xf]6n Joj;foLx?sf] ;xefuLdf /x]sf] lyof] . o; tflndn] ;fgf xf]6n Joj;foLx? ;+u ePsf] j:t'x?sf] ;lx pkof]u ul/ cem Jojl:yt ug{ ;lsg] jf/]df ;}4flGts / Jojxfl/s 1fg lbg] sfo{ u/]sf] lyof] . tflnd kl5 ;fgf xf]6n / nhsf] Joj:yfkgdf ;'wf/ eO{ ko{6sn] k|fKt ug]{ ;]jfsf] u'0f:t/df ;'wf/ ePsf] 5 . o; tflnd d'nvs{df ;+rfng ePsf] lyof] eg] o;df d'nvs{ / lr;fkfgLsf ;fgf xf]6n nhsf] ;xefuLtf /x]sf] lyof] .

x:tsnf tflnd

s= sg{xS; 8n tflnd, w'lnv]n

w'lnv]sf dlxnfx?sf] ;xefuLtfdf ds}sf] vf]:6fsf] k'tln jgfpg] tflnd klxnf] k6s @)!) df lbPsf] lyof] . dlxnfx?nfO{ pTkfbsf] s|ddf ;xof]u k'uf]; eGg] pB]Zon] ;+:yfn] k'tln jgfpg] j]Rg] :yfgsf] ;d]t Joj:yf u/]sf] lyof] . klxnf] k6s lnPsf] tflnd ck'u ePkl5 yk tflndsf] dfu eP cg'?k @)!! Df k'gx tflndsf] Joj:yf u/]sf] lyof] . ;fd'lxs ?kdf pTkfbg x'g g;s]klg ^ hgf JolQmn] JolQmut ?kdf pTkfbg ul/ sf];]nL 3/ ljqmL sIfnfO{ ljqmL ug]{ kfO{Psf] 5 . w'lnv]n cfpg] ljb]zL :jb]zL ko{6sn] lrgf]sf] ?kdf sg{xS; 8n vl/b u/]/ n}hfg] u/]sf] kfO{G5 h;n] ubf{ oxfFsf] sg{xS; 8n ko{6lso pTkfbgsf] ?kdf b]zljb]z k'Ug] u/]sf] 5 oxfFsf] pTkfbgn] cfkm\gf] kl/ro jgfpg ;kmn ePsf] 5 . 

v= x:tsnf tflnd, gu/sf]6

gu/sf]6df ckf+utf ePsfx?nfO{ nlIft ul/ g]kfnL sfuhsf] x:tsnf tflnd klxnf] k6s @)!@ df g]l6kmsf] ;xof]u gu/sf]6 gfNb'd ko{6g ljsf; ;ldlt / ckf+u ;+:yfsf] ;+o'Qm cfof]hgfdf ;DkGg ePsf] lyof] . klxnf] tflnd k|fKt u/]kl5 pTkfbg yfn]sfx?nfO{ u'0f:tl/o pTkfbg ug{sf] nfuL yk tflndsf] dfu eP cg'?k @)!# df tflnd pknJw u/fpg] sfo{ ;DkGg ePsf] 5 . gusf/]6 gfNb'd ko{6g ljsf; ;ldltsf] kxndf g]l6kmsf] ;xof]udf x:tsnf ljqmL s]Gb| :yfkgf ePsf] 5 ko{6sx?sf] x:tsnf e|d0f ug]{ vl/b ug]{ sfo{df j[l4 ePsf] 5 .

g]l6kmsf] ;xof]udf ljqmL sIfsf] lgdf{0f kmlg{r/sf] Joj:yf, ljqmL sIf :yfkgfsf] nfuL x:tsnf ;fdfu|Lsf] vl/b, x:tsnf pTkfbg tyf ljqmL Joj:yfkgsf] nfuL x:tsnf Joj:yfkg ;ldlt, x:tsnf jhf/ Joj:yfkg ;ldlt lgdf{0f, ljqmL sIfdf sfo{ug]{ ul/ Pshgf sd{rf/Lsf] Joj:yfsf] nfuL kfl/>lds pknJw u/fpg] sfo{ u/]sf] 5  . x:tsnf pTkfbg tyf ljqmL sIfsf] nfuL Pshgf yk ;xof]uLsf] cfjZostf b]lvPsf] 5 .

cuf{lgs v]lt tflnd

d'nvs{ M

cuf{lgs v]lt / vfgf ksfpbf xf]6nn] k|of]u ug]{ xj{;-;'uGwLt hl8j'6L_ sf] v]lt ;DjGwL tflnd g]l6kmsf] ;xof]u / :yflgo ;+:yfsf] cfof]hgfdf ;DkGg ePsf] lyof] . tflnd pknJw u/fPkl5 d'nvs{df JolQmut t/sf/L / ;fd'lxs ?kdf n;'g v]lt eO{/x]sf] 5 t/sf/L / n;'g v]ltn] /fd|f] k|ltkmn lbO{/x]sf] 5 . gu/sf]6df ;fd'lxs ?kdf cuf{lgs t/sf/L v]lt eO{/x]sf] 5 o; t/sf/L v]ltn] ck]lIft pknJwL xfl;n ug{ ;ls/x]sf] 5}g\ . cuf{lgs t/sf/L v]lt ;d'xn] pTkfbgdf j[l4 ug{sf] nfuL of]hgf jgfO{ s[oflzn /x]sf] 5 . b'j} 7fpsf] pTkfbgnfO{ jhf/sf] Joj:yfkg ug{ cefj ePsf] b]lvb}g\ .

nf]sn ufO{8 tflnd

w'lnv]n M

g]l6kmn] cfkm\gf] sfo{ If]q leq klxnf] k6s w'lnv]nsf o'jfnfO{ nlIft ul/ ufO{8 tflnd gfydsf] ;xof]u / g]l6kmsf] cfof]hgfdf ;DkGg ePsf] lyof] . pQm tflnd lnPsf ufO{8x?n] w'lnv]n ufO{8 P;f]lzo;g lgdf{0f ul/ s[oflzn /x]sf lyP . ufO{8 tflnd lnPsfx? xf]6ndf sfo{/t JolQm lyP h;n] clxn] klg ufO{8 ug]{ sfd ul//x]sf] 5 eg] s]lx JolQmx? ufO{8 k]zfnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbO{/x]sf 5g\ .

g]r/ ufO{8 tflnd

;'Gb/Lhn M

;'Gb/Lhn If]qjf6 hfg] ko{6sx?nfO{ ufO{8 ;]jf gkfO{/x]sf]n] lgs'~h If]q leq x/fpg], vf]nfdf v;L b'3{6gfdf kl//xg] x'gfn] ufO{8 ;]jfnfO{ ko{6snfO{ ;'/lIft kbofqf ug{ d4t k'U5 eg] :yflgo /f]huf/Lsf] ;d]t ;[hgf ug]{ pB]Zon] ufO{8 tflnd lzjk'/L gfuf{h'g /fli6|o lgs'~hsf] cfof]hgf / g]l6kmsf] ;xof]udf ;DkGg ePsf] lyof] . ufO{8 k]zfnfO{ lgoldt / Jojl:yt ug{, ko{6sx?nfO{ o; If]qdf ;'rgf lbg] lgsfo s'g}klg gePsf] cj:yfdf ko{6s ;'rgf s]Gb| :yfkgf ePsf] lyof] . ! hgf ufO{8nfO{ kfl/>lds pknJw u/fO{ ;'rgf s]Gb| ;+rfngsf] lhDd]jf/L lbO{Psf] 5 . s]Gb|df ufO{8 j;]sf]n] ko{6sx?n] ufO{8 ;]jf dfu u/]df s]Gb|df j;]sf] ufO{8n] cGo ufO{8nfO{ ;dGjo ul/ ufO{8 ;]jf pknJw u/fpg] Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 .

lj|s]6 tflnd

;'Gb/Lhn, lr;fkfgL, gu/sf]6 / w'lnv]n M

g]l6kmn] :yflgo ;fem]bf/L ;+:yf ;+usf] ;xsfo{df ;'Gb/Lhn, lr;fkfgL, gu/sf]6 / w'lnv]nsf ljleGg ;d'bfonfO{ nlIft ul/ jg ljgf;df sld NofO{ jftfj/0f ;+/If0f ug]{ pB]Zon] h+unL emf/kft kftjf6 jgfpg ;lsg] ljqm]6 tflnd / pks/0f pknJw u/fpg] sfo{ ePsf] lyof] . tflndsf] klxnf] r/0f pT;fx b]lvPklg o;n] Joj;foL ?k u|x0f ug{ ;s]g .

g[To k|lzIf0f

ko{6sx? ljleGg ko{6lso :ynsf] e|d0fkl5 xf]6nsf] jf; x'g]ub{5 . ko{6sx?sf] xf]6nsf] j;fO{ / ysfO{nfO{ cfgGbLt jgfpg, :yflgo ;+:s[ltnfO{ ;+/If0f ub}{ :yflgo o'jfx?nfO{ j}sNkLs :j/f]huf/ lbg] pB]Zon] g]l6kmn] g[To k|lzIf0fsf] cfof]hgf u/]sf] lyof] . g]l6kmn] pQm k|lzIf0f lnPsf ;xefuLx?sf] ;d'xnfO{ g[Tosf] nfuL rflxg] e]ife'iff, jfBjfbgsf ;fwgx? pknJw u/fPsf] lyof] . k|lzIf0fsf ;xefuLx?n] uf}/Lz+s/ ;f:s[lt ;d'x lgdf{0f ul/ xf]6nx?sf] dfu cg';f/ ljleGg ;+:s[lt emNsLg] sfo{qmdsf] k|:t'tL lbb} cfPsf 5g\ o;n] snfsf/x?sf] lhljsf]kfh{gnfO{ ;d]t dxTjk"0f{ ;xof]u k'u]sf] 5 .

cfkm\gf] lhjgdf k|ToIf kmfO{bf k'Ug] ljZjf; ePdf z'?jftL r/0fdf h:tf] ;'s} r'gf}lt cfPklg lgoldttf lbPs} sf/0fn] ;kmntf k|fKt ug{ ;s]sf 5g\ . ;kmntf k|fKtL kl5 o; ;d'xn] ;f:s[lts sfo{qmdnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg ;Sbf /x]5g\ eGg] /fd|f] pbfx/0f of] ;f:s[lts ;d'xn] b]vfpg ;kmn ePsf] 5 .

gu/sf]6 M

kmf]x/ Joj:yfkg tflnd M

sf7df08f} pkTosf ;f:s[lts kbdfu{df kg]{ gu/sf]6sf] ko{6lso :yn / xf]6n nhsf] kmf]x/ Joj:yfkgdf ;xof]u   k'ofpg] pB]Zon] gu/sf]6df ko{6g Joj;foL ;/sf/L u}/;/sf/L lgsfosf] ;xefuLtfdf uf]i7L ePsf] lyof] . xfn ;Dd xf]6n Joj;foL, :yflgo ;d'bfon] kmf]x/ Joj:yfkgsf] nfuL u/]sf k|of;, plrt 9+ujf6 kmf]x/ Joj:yfkg ug]{ ljlw, kmf]x/ Joj:yfkgsf r'gf}lt / pkfox?sf] jf/]df lj1x?n] wf/0ff /fVg] sfo{ ePsf] lyof] . ;dfwfgsf] jf/]df 5nkmn x'bf kmf]x/ lg:sg] d'xfgdf kmf]x/df sld NofP/, xf]6n nhjf6 lg:sg] kmf]x/nfO{ uNg] guNg] kmf]x/nfO{ 5'6\ofpg], uNg] ls;Ldsf kmf]x/nfO{ dn jgfO{ km'nsf lj?jf, t/sf/L jf/Ldf k|of]u ug{ ;lsG5 eg] guNg] kmf]x/nfO{ l/;fOlsln8= ug]{ lgsfo ;Dd k'ofpg], l/;fO{lsln8= gx'g] kmf]x/nfO{ eQmk'/ gu/kflnsf ;+u ;dGjo ul/ 8lk8= ;fO{6df k7fpg] jf gu/sf]6 If]qdf g} 8lk8= ;fO{6 jgfP/ Jojl:yt ug{ ;lsg] ;'emfjsf] ?kdf cfPsf] lyof] . ;fgf xf]6n nh Joj;foLnfO{ kmf]x/ Joj:yfkg sfo{sf] kl/lw leq Nofpgsf] nfuL 5nkmn rnfpg] ;'emfjsf] ?kdf cfPsf] lyof] . uf]i7Ln] p7fPsf ljifodf o; If]qdf s[oflzn /x]sf] ;+:yf gu/sf]6 gfNb'd ko{6g ljsf; ;ldltsf] cu'jfO{df xf]6nx?df kmf]x/ ;+sng / uNg] guNg] kmf]x/ 5'6\ofpg], guNg] kmf]x/nfO{ eQmk'/ gu/kflnsf ;+u ;dGjo ul/ 8lk8= ;fO{8df k7fpg] sfo{ eof] eg] ;fgf xf]6n nh Joj;foLx?nfO{ klg kmf]x/ Joj:yfkg sfo{df ;xefuL / ;xof]uL jgfpg] sfo{ ePsf] lyof]= . of] uf]i7L gu/sf]6sf] rf}tf/L xf]6n @@ ;]K6]Dj/ @))( df cfof]hgf ePsf] lyof] eg] of] sfo{qmdsf] %% hgfsf] ;xefuLtf /x]sf] lyof] . o; sfo{qmdsf] k|d'v cltlysf] ?kdf sf7df08f} ljZjljBfnosf pks'nklt /x]sf lyP .

g]l6kmn] ;+rfng u/]sf e]nf,uf]i7L

sf7df08f} pkTosf ;f:s[lts kbdfu{sf] ljsf;sf] nfuL uf]i7L M

w'lnv]n M

g]l6kmn] @))* df cWoog ;DkGg ul/;s]kl5 sf7df08f} pkTosf ;f:s[lts kbdfu{ /fhwfgL jfl; / jfXo ko{6ssf] nfuL cfs{ifssf] s]Gb| jgfpg ;lsof] eg] ko{6ssf] nfuL dfq o;n] kmfObf geO{ o; kbdfu{df kg]{ ufpFn]x?n] ko{6g If]qd kx'r k'ofpg d4t k'Ug]5 eGg] pB]Zn] of] kbdfu{sf] ljsf; ug{sf nfuL @))* df klxnf] k6s sf7df08f} w'lnv]nsf ko{6s Joj;foL, :yflgo ;/sf/L u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf, sNjx?sf] ;xefuLtfdf sf7df08f} pkTosf ;f:s[lts kbdfu{sf] dxTj ljz]if uf]i7Lsf] cfof]hgf u/]sf] lyof] . of] kbdfu{df ;xefuL ;j}n] k|j4{g ug'{kg]{ dfu{sf] ?kdf kg]{ cfcfkm\gf] If]qjf6 ;xof]u k'ofpg] jf/]df ljrf/ /fv]sf] lyP . . @)!) ;Dd cfO{k'Ubf o; kbdfu{df cfGtl/s / jfXo ko{6sx?n] kbofqf ug]{sf] ;+Vof qmdz j[l4 eO{/x]sf] kfO{G5 . o; jif{df @))* / @))( sf] t'ngfdf #) k|ltztn] ko{6sx? j[l4 ePsf] kfO{G5 . o; uf]i7Ln] o; kbdfu{nfO{ cem k|rf/ k|;f/ ug'{kg]{ b]vfPsf] lyof] .ko{6g If]qdf k|ToIf ;/f]sf/ /fVg]x?n] k|j4{gsf] nfuL cfcfkm\gf] If]qjf6 of]ubfg ug]{ k|ltj4tf ;d]t JoQm u/]sf lyP .  of] sfo{qmd !^ d] @))* df w'lnv]n nh l/;f]{6df ;DkGg ePsf] lyof] .

sf7df08f} pkTosf ;f:s[lts kbdfu{sf] ljsf;sf] nfuL lhDd]jf/ ko{6g uf]i7L M

lr;fkfgL M

sf7df08f} pkTosf ;f:s[lts kbdfu{sf] ljsf;sf] nfuL ko{6g lhDd]jf/L ko{6g ;DjGwL ;r]tgf geP ;Dd o; dfu{sf ljsf;sf] nfuL sl7gfO{ x'g] ePsf]n] lhDd]jf/ ko{6g eg]sf] s] xf] < lhDd]jf/ ko{6gsf] cfwf/e"t dfGotfx?s] s] s] x'g Joj;foLsx?n] lhDd]jf/ ko{6g4f/f g} o; If]qsf] ljsf;sf] nfuL s;/L d4t k'Ug ;S5 < o;jf/]df ko{6g If]qsf lj1 JolQmx? 4f/f k|lzlIft ug]{ sfo{ ePsf] lyof] . o; sfo{qmdn] ko{6g Joj;foL lhDd]jf/L k"j{s ko{6g Joj;fo ;+rfng ug'{sf] ;fy} ;fdflhs bfloTj lgjf{xfsf] nfuL cu|;/ jgfpg d4t k'u]sf] 5 . :yflgo ;+:yf ko{6g Joj;foLsf] ;+o'Qm kxndf @* clk|n @)!@ df of] uf]i7Lsf] cfof]hgf ePsf] lyof] . uf]i7Ldf g]kfn ko{6g jf]8{sf k"j{ l;=O=cf]= k|r08dfg l;x / 6fgsf k"j{ cWoIf lbks dxtn] lhDd]jf/ ko{6g ljsf; jf/] wf/0ff /fVg'sf] ;fy} cGt/s[of ;+rfng ug'[{ ePsf] lyof] . lhDd]jf/ ko{6g ;+u ;DjGwLt lr;fkfgLsf xf]6n nh Joj;foLx?nfO{ ljleGg tflnd pknJw u/fpg] sfo{ ePsf] 5 . xf]6n nh Joj;foL tflnd jf6 k|fKt 1fgnfO{ Jojxf]/df nfu' ug]{ k|oTg ePsf] 5 / o;sf] nfuL xf]6n nh Joj:yfkg ;DjGwL j]nfj]nfdf cl86 -cg'udg_ ug]{ sfo{ eO{/x]sf] 5 . lr;fkfgL xf]6n nh :t/ pGgtLsf] nfuL :yflgo ;+:yf, xf]6n Joj;foL / ko{6g ;+u ;DjlGwt lgsfon] lgoldt cg'udg sfo{nfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg ;lsof] eg] oxfFsf] xf]6nsf] qmdz ljsf; x'g] b]lvG5 . lhDd]jf/L ko{6g jf/]df xf]6n Joj;foL, ko{6s / :yflgo ;d'bfofnO{ ;r]t u/fpg] pB]Zon] ;'rgf kf6L lgdf{0f / :yfkgf ug]{ sfo{ u/]sf] 5 o; ls;Ldsf] ;'rgf kf6Ln] lbg] ;'rgf ko{6g If]qdf gof kxnsf] ?kdf lnPsf] kfO{G5 kf6L cWoog / dgg of]Uo /x]sf] jf/]df ko{6s / ko{6g Joj;foLx?sf] k|lts[of /x]sf] 5 .

cuf{lgs t/sf/L v]lt ;DjGwdf M

s=cuf{lgs t/sf/Lsf] pTkfbg / jhf/Ls/0fdf xf]6n Joj;foLsf] e"ldsf ljifo cGt/s[of sfo{qmd

w'lnv]n M

w'lnv]nsf xf]6n Joj;foLx?n] kx'gfx?nfO{ /f;folgs / ljiffbL k|of]u ul/ pTkfbg ePsf t/sf/L nufot j:t'jf6 ;]jf lbg] u/]sf] kfO{G5 . :yflgo ;d'bfodf ljiffbL / /f;folgs dnsf] k|of]un] dfgj :jf:Yodf kg{ uO{/x]sf] gsf/fTds c;/ / df6f]sf pj{/fzlQm ;d]t ljgf; jf/]] r]tgf ljsf; eO{/x]sf] ;Gbe{df cuf{lgs v]ltsf] k|j4{g ug'{ o; sfo{qmdsf] d'Vo pB]Zo lyof] . sfo{qmdn] :yflgo ;d'bfojf6 cuf{lgs j:t'x?sf] pTkfbg vl/b ul/ ls;fgnfO{ k|f]T;fxg ug]{ k|ltj4tf JoQm u/]sf lyP . ;fy} cGt/s[of sfo{qmd kl5  xf]6n Joj;foLx?n] cuf{lgs pTkfbgsf] :6njf6 vl/b ul/ ls;fgx?nfO{ k|f]T;fxg ug]{ sfo{ ;d]t ePsf] lyof] . xf]6n Joj;foLx?n] cuf{lgs pTkfbgsf] d]g' /flv ;]jf lbg yfn]sf] kfO{G5 eg] ls;fgx?n] cuf{lgs v]ltnfO{ k|fyldstfsf ;fy ug{ yfn]sf] kfO{G5 . of] sfoqmd $ h'g @)!) w'lnv]ndf ;DkGg ePsf] lyof]

cuf{lgs t/sf/L v]lt pTkfbg jf/] uf]i7L

w'lnv]n M

w'lnv]nsf j/k/sf ls;fgx?nfO{ nlIft ul/ cuf{lgs v]ltsf] dxTjsf] jf/]df cGt/s[of sfo{qmdsf] cfof]hgf ul/Psf] lyof] . cuf{lgs pTkfbg dfu cg';f/ geO{/x]sf] ;Gbe{df ls;fgx?nfO{ o; uf]i7Ln] pTkfbgdf j[l4 ug'{kg]{ dx;'; u/fPsf] lyof] . ljifflbsf] k|of]un] ls;fgnfO{ kg{ hfg] gsf/fTds c;/ pTkfbg nfut j9g hfg] h;n] ubf{ cfDbfgL 36g] jf/]df hfgsf/L u/fO{Psf] lyof] . o; sfo{qmdn] ls;fgx?nfO{ cuf{lgs pTkfbg j[l4 / cuf{lgs v]lt gul//x]sf ls;fgnfO{ cuf{lgs pTkfbg ug{ pT;fxL jgfPsf] lyof] .

xf]d :6] cWoog e|d0f

ko{6g If]qdf :yflgo ;d'bfosf] kx'r k'ofpg] pB]Zon] xf]d :6] sfo{qmdn] ult lnO{/x]sf] cj:yfdf g]l6kmsf] sfo{If]q leq xf]d :6] ;+efjgf b]lvPsf]n] sfo{If]qsf ;d'bfonfO{ xf]d :6] cWoog e|d0fsf] cfof]hgf ul/Psf] lyof] . o; cWoog e|d0fsf ;xefuLx?n] ;fgf xf]6n nh rnfO{ /x]sfx?nfO{ xf]d :6]df hfg pT;flx jgfPsf] 5 eg] xf]6n Joj;fodf ;+dnUg ePsfx?n] xf]d :6] k|j4{gsf] nfuL ;xof]uL e"ldsf v]Ng] pTk|]l/t ug{ d4t k'Ug] ljZjf; ul/Psf] 5 .

jkm/hf]g ;DjGwL cWoog e|d0f M

g]l6kmsf] cfof]hgfdf jkm/hf]g jf/]df cWoog e|d0f @ k6s cfof]hgf u/]sf] lyof] . klxnf] e|d0f @)!! Dff ;'Gb/Lhn ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt cGtu{tsf :yflgo ;d'bfo, lzjk'/L gfuf{h'g /fli6|o lgs'~hsf k|ltlgwL / ufpF ljsf; ;ldltsf] ;lrjsf] ;xefuL /xof] eg] bf]>f] e|d0f @)!@ df gofF kf6L ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt :yflgo ;d'bfo, lzjk'/L gfuf{h'g /fli6|o lgs'~hsf] ;xfos jf8]{g / gofFkf6L ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt :yflgo ;d'bfo, ;lrj / ;'Gb/Lhnsf k|ltlgwLx?sf] ;xefuLtf /x]sf] lyof] . 5nkmn lrtjgdf dWojlt{ 3f]if0ff ePsf] ;ldlt / lrtjg /fli6|o lgs'~hsf] sd{rf/L ;+u 5nkmn ePsf] lyof] . jkm/hf]g ;DjGwL wf/0ffsf] jf/]df :ki6 x'g / gePsfx?nfO{ :ki6 ug]{ e'ldsf v]Ng] sfo{ eof] . lzjk'/L gfuf{h'g /fli6|o lgs'~hnfO{ jkm/hf]g ug{sf] nfuL e|d0f 6f]lnsf ;b:ox? clxn] ;Dd s[oflzn ePsf] jkm/hf]g 3f]if0ffdf ;xdt gePsf] # uflj;nfO{ 5nkmn 4f/f lnlvt ;xdlt u/fpg ;kmn ePsf] .

jftfj/0fLo ;]jf jfkt e'Qmflg

jftfj/0fLo ;]jf e'Qmflg / o; cWoog e|d0fn] uf]/vfsf] gu/kflnsfdf kfgL NofPsf] pkNnf] e]usf] ufpFn] nfO{ gu/kflnsfsf] ;xof]u s] s;/L ePsf] jf/]df :yflgo ;d'bfo / gu/kflnsf ;+u 5nkmn u/of] . /]8 sfo{qmd cGtu{t cGt/fli6|o k'?:sf/ kfPsf ;d'bfo ;+u uf]/vf o; sfo{qmdn] jftfj/0fLo ;]jf jfkt e'Qmflg sfo{qmd k|lt ;'Gb/Lhn jf;LnfO{ lgoldt ?kdf jsfnt ug{ phf{ lbPsf] 5 eg] jftfj/0f ;+/If0f sfo{df ;s[otf j9]sf] 5 .

g]l6kmn] ;+rfng u/]sf k|j4{gfTds sfo{qmd tyf cleofg

sf7df08f} pkTosf ;f:s[lts kbdfu{sf] k|j4{g ug'{sf] d'Vo pB]Zo ko{6sx?sf] cfudgdf j[l4 u/fpg', :yflgo ;d'bfonfO{ ko{6g If]qdf kx'r k'ofpg', ko{6gsf] nfe :yflgo ;d'bfon] lnO{ lhljsf]kfh{g d4t ug'{, /x]sf] 5 .

ko{6sx? k|fs[lts ;'Gb/tf, g]zgnkfs{, hnfwf/ If]q, lxdfnL / kxf8L b[Zo cjnf]sg ug]{ pB]Zon] kbofqf ug{{ cfpg] ub{5g\ . ko{6sx? oxfFsf] k|fs[lts ;'Gb/tf cjnf]sg ug{ cfpg] ePsf]n] jftfj/0f ;+/If0f ug'{ xfd|f] e"ldsf bfloTj / st{Josf] jf/]df :yflgo ;d'bfonfO{ ;r]t u/fpb} cfPsf] 5 . o;nfO{ Jojxf/Ls ?kdf?kdf s[oflzn x'g ;xof]uL e"ldsf v]Ng] u/]sf] 5 .  k|fs[lt ;'Gb/tf 5 / ko{6s cfp5g\, ko{6s cfp5g\ / xfd|f] lhljsf rn]sf] 5  / lhjg:t/df ;'wf/ cfPsf] 5 . of] rqmnfO{ cnut ynu geO{ Pp6f rqmdf hf]8]/ x]g]{ / ;+/If0fsf] sfo{df nfUg pTk|]l/t ug'{ ko{6g k|j4{gsf] d'Vo nIo /xsf] 5 . log} ljifonfO{ Wofgdf /fv]/ ko{6g k|j4{gfTds sfo{x? ;+rfng ub}{ cfPsf] 5 h'g o; k|sf/ 5 .

g]l6kmn] sf7df08f} pkTosf ;f:s[lts kbdfu{sf] jftfjl/0fo, ;f:s[lts / k'/ftfTjLs b[li6sf]0fn] dxTj /fVg] :yfg kb{5g\ . /fhwfgL b]lv glhsdf /x]sf] of] kbdfu{df :jb]zL ljb]zL ko{6sx? ! lbg b]lv % lbg ;Ddsf] kbofqf ug{ ;Sb5g\ . hnfwf/sf] d'Vo If]q x'g'sf] ;fy} zx/sf] jftfj/0f ;Gt'ngdf ;d]t o; kbdfu{df kg]{ jgh+unn] dxTjk"0f{ jftfj/0fLo ;]jf k|bfg ub}{ cfPsf 5g\ . o;}n] klg o; If]qsf] jgh+unsf] ;+/If0f ug'{ clgjfo{ / l9nf] eO{;s]sf] cj:yfdf g]l6kmn] sfo{ yfngL u/]sf] lyof] . o;} ;Gbe{df jftfj/0f ;+/If0f / ko{6g k|j4{gsf] nfuL ko{6lso uGtJox?sf] dxTj ;+u cleGg cu+sf] ?kdf hf]l8Psf] jftfj/0f ;+/If0f ug'{ xf] eGg] ;Gb]znfO{ cfd dflg;x?sf] j'emfO{df Ps?ktf Nofpgsf] nfuL o; kbdfu{sf] k|j4{gsf] nfuL ljleGg sfo{qmdsf] cfof]hgf g]l6kmn] ub}{ cfPsf] 5 .

:yflgo ;d'bfon] lhljsf]kfh{gsf] nfuL jg km8fgL ug'{kg]{ jfWotf ePsf] cj:yfdf j}sNkLs /f]huf/Lsf] ?kdf ko{6g g} pQd ljsNk xf] eGg] lgZsif{df k'uL ko{6g k|j4{gsf] sfo{qmdnfO{ ljz]if dxTj g]l6kmn] lbg] u/]sf] 5 . o; If]qsf] k|j4{gn] :jefljs ?kdf ko{6gsf] cfudgdf j[l4 ePsf] 5 eg] oxfFsf] ;d'bfo k|ToIf ck|ToIf ?kdf ko{6g Joj;fodf hf]l8g] qmd jl9/x]sf] 5 o;n] :yflgo ;d'bfosf]] lhjg:t/df qmdz ;'wf/ eO{/x]sf] 5 . ko{6g Joj;fo ;+u hf]8g] cj;/ oxfFsf] jftfj/0fn] ubf{g} k|fKt x'g uPsf] eGg] ;r]tgf :yflgo ;d'bfodf cfpg yfn]kl5 :jefljs ?kdf jftfj/0f ;+/If0f sfo{df ;d'xut, ;+:yfut / JolQmut k|of;x? b]lvPsf 5g\ h;n] ubf{ lbuf] ko{6g ljsf;sf] nfuL dxTj /fVg]5 .

o; 7fpsf]] k|j4{g ug{ ;lsof] eg] dfq jftfj/0f ;+/If0f x'g;S5 eGg] ;f]rn] g} ko{6g k|j4{gsf ljleGg ultljwLx? h:t} ;fO{lsln8=, ljleGg ls;Ldsf xfO{ls8=, wfg /f]kfO{, jf]/]Gh jN;d, nflnu'/f; kbofqf h:tf pT;jsf] cfof]hgf ul/ :jb]zL ljb]zLx?nfO{ kbofqf ug]{ d];f] g]l6km ldnfpb} cfPsf] 5 . zx/ b]lv cJo:t ePsfx?nfO{ of] kbdfu{sf] dxTj cem j9g uPsf] 5 . o; kbdfu{df nfvf}sf] ;+Vofdf :jb]zL ko{6sx? cfpg] / ljleGg uGtJox?df k'uL ko{6lso ;]jf lng] u/]sf] kfO{G5 . cfufdL lbgdf o; kbdfu{sf] k|j4{gs]f nfuL :yflgo ;+:yf ;/f]sf/jfnf lgsfox? cu|;/ x'g] ljZjf; g]l6kmn] lnPsf] 5 .

k|j4{g ;DjGwL ePsf ultljwLx? M

lr;fkfgL b]lv w'lnv]n ;Dd k}bn ofqf -FAM Trip_

sf7df08f} pkTosf ;f:s[lts dfu{sf] k|j4{gsf] nfuL k}bndfu{sf] cj:yf cWoogsf] nfuL of] kb}n ofqf g]l6kmsf] sd{rf/Lsf] ;xefuLtfdf ;DkGg ePsf] lyof] . of] cWoog e|d0fn] sf7df08f} pkTosf ;f:s[lts dfu{ k|j4{g ug{] cfwf/ tof/ ePsf] lyof] . o;} cWoogn] dfu{sf] ?6x? lglZrt ug{ / dfu{df kg]{ ko{6lso dxTjsf :yfg  klxrfg ug{ ;xof]u u/]sf] lyof] . g]l6kmn] cWoog jf6 cfPsf] lgZsif{sf] cfwf/ sf7df08f} pkTosf ;f:s[lts dfu{sf] /]vf+sg ul/ jftfj/0f ;+/If0f / ko{6g ljsf;sf] nfuL sfo{qmd ;+rfng u/]sf] lyof] .

xfO{s P08 jfO{s

sf7df08f} pkTosf ;f:s[lts dfu{sf] k|j4{gsf] nfuL ;'Gb/Lhnjf6 lr;fkfgL ;Dd k}bn ofqf / lr;fkfgL b]lv ;'Gb/Lhn ;Dd jfO{s sfo{qmdsf] cfof]hgf u/]sf] lyof] . sfo{qmddf xf]6n Joj;foL, kqsf/, ljb]zL s'6lglt lgof]usf JolQmx?, 6|fen Ph]G;Lsf k|ltlgwL, 6fg,xfg,g]kfn ko{6g jf]8{, ko{6g If]qdf s[oflzn /x]sf ;+3;+:yfx?sf] ;xefuLtf /x]sf] lyof] . sfo{qmd ko{6g Joj;foL If]qdf s[oflzn ePsfx?n] of] kbdfu{sf] k|rf/k|;f/ eO{ ko{6sx?sf] cfudgdf j[l4 ePsf] 5 .

xfO{s -gu/sf]6 b]lv w'lnv]n xfO{s_

gu/sf]6 b]lv w'lnv]n ;Dd k}bnofqf -xfO{s_ sfo{qmdsf] cfof]hgf u/]sf] lyof] . sfo{qmddf xf]6n Joj;foL, kqsf/, ljb]zL s'6lglt lgof]usf JolQmx?, 6|fen Ph]G;Lsf k|ltlgwL, :yflgo ;+3;+:yfsf k|ltlglwx?sf] ;xefuLtf /x]sf] lyof] .

xfO{s -w'lnv]n b]lv gMdf] j'4_

w'lnv]n gMdf] j'4sf] k}bn ofqf -xfO{s_ g]l6kmsf] cfof]hgfdf / Pg=cf/=Pg=n] jflif{s ;fwf/0f zef ug{sf] nfuL g]kfn cfPsf ;b:ox?sf] d'Vo ;xefuLtf /x]sf] lyof] . To;} ul/ xf]6n Joj;foL, kqsf/, ljb]zL s'6lglt lgof]usf JolQmx?, 6|fen Ph]G;Lsf k|ltlgwL, :yflgo ;+3;+:yfsf k|ltlglwx?sf] klg ;xefuLtf /x]sf] lyof] . o; sfo{qmdn] ljb]zdf /x]sf] g]kfnLx?df o; kbdfu{sf] k|rf/k|;f/ x'g d4t k'u]sf] 5 .

nflnu'/f; cjnf]sg ofqf

;'Gb/Lhn b]lv lr;fkfgLsf sf7df08f} pkTosf ;f:s[lt kbdfu{sf] k|j4{gsf] nfuL nfnLu'/f; kb ofqf sfo{qmd g]l6kmsf] cfof]hgf / :yflgo ;+:yfsf] ;xof]udf of] sfo{qmd ;DkGGg ePsf] lyof] . o; sfo{qmddf xf]6n Joj;foL, kqsf/, ljb]zL s'6lglt lgof]usf JolQmx?, 6|fen Ph]G;Lsf k|ltlgwL, :yflgo ;+3;+:yfsf k|ltlglw, lzIfs, ljBfly{, :sfp6x?sf] klg ;xefuLtf /x]sf] lyof] . sfo{qmdn] ;xefuLx? ljr nflnu'/f; km'Ng] ;dosf] ofqfsf] ljz]if dxTjsf] jf/]df j'emg] cj;/ k|fKt ug'{sf] ;fy} kbdfu{sf] k|rf/ k|;f/df d4t k'u]sf] 5 . 

;'Gtnf kbdfu{sf] ofqf -cf]/]Gh jN;d xfO{s_

w'lnv]n b]lv jnynL ;Ddsf] ofqfn] sf7df08f} pkTosf ;f:s[lt kbdfu{sf] k|j4{g ug]{ pB]Zon] g]l6kmsf] cfof]hgf / :yflgo ;+:yfsf] ;xof]udf of] sfo{qmd ;DkGGg ePsf] lyof] . o; sfo{qmddf xf]6n Joj;foL, kqsf/, ljb]zL s'6lglt lgof]usf JolQmx?, 6|fen Ph]G;Lsf k|ltlgwL, :yflgo ;+3;+:yfsf k|ltlglw, lzIfs, ljBfly{, :sfp6x?sf] klg ;xefuLtf /x]sf] lyof] . sfo{qmdn] ;xefuLx? ljr ;'Gtnf kmNg] ;dodf ul/g] ofqfsf] ljz]if dxTjsf] jf/]df j'emg] cj;/ k|fKt ug'{sf] ;fy} k|rf/ k|;f/df d4t k'u]sf] 5 .

;'Gb/Lhn lzjk'/L lks xfO{ls8=

sf7df08f} pkTosf ;f:s[lts kbdfu{sf] zfvf kbdfu{x? ljsf; ug]{ pB]Zon] ;'Gb/Lhn lzjk'/L lks xfO{ls8= sfo{qmdsf] cfof]hgf u/]sf] lyof] . zfvf kbdfu{sf] klxnf] k6s k|j4{g ul/Psf] of] kbdfu{ Ps}lbgdf uP/ cfpg ;lsg] ePsf] x'bf cfGtl/s / jfXo ko{6sf] uGtJosf] ?kdf ljsf; x'g o; ls;Ldsf] k|j4{gfTds sfo{qmdn] d4t k'u]sf] 5 .

;fO{sn ofqf -;fO{lsln8=_

w'lnv]n ;fO{lsn Pzf]l;o;gsf] cfof]hgf / g]l6kmsf] ;xof]udf sf7df08f} pkTosf kbdfu{df ;fO{lsln8= ug{ ;lsg] elg w'lnv]n b]lv jnynL ;Ddsf] sfo{qmdsf] cfof]hgf ul/Psf] lyof] . o; k|j4{gfTds sfo{qmddf :yflgo ;d'bfo, xf]6n Joj;foL, ;fO{lsn8= k|lt rfv /fVg] JolQmx?, ljleGg ;/sf/L u}/;/sf/L lgsfosf] ;fy} ;fOlsn Pzf]l;o;g s]Gb|sf] ;d]t ;xefuLtfdf /x]sf] lyof] . o; sfo{qmdn] w'lnv]n b]lv jnynL ;Ddsf] ?6 ;fO{lsn8=sf] nfuL pko'Qm /x]sf] jf/]df ;~rf/ dfWod, ko{6g Joj;foL / :yflgo ;d'bfon] hfgsf/L lbg ;kmn /x]sf] 5 . 

lr;fkfgL pT;j

sf7df08f} pkTosf ;f:s[lts kbdfu{ leq kg]{ k|d'v uGtJo dWo lr;fkfgL uGtJo k|fs[lts, ;f:s[lt, wfld{s, h}ljs ljljwtfsf] b[li6n] dxTjk"0f{ /x]sf] 5 . o;}n] lr;fkfgL uGtJosf] k|j4{g ug{sf] lgldQ lr;fkfgL dxT;j g]l6kmsf] / :yflgo ;+:yfsf] ;+o'Qm cfof]hgfdf ;DkGg ePsf] lyof] . dxTj;sf] ;f:s[lt emfls, ;f:s[lts sfo{qmd, cfcfkm\gf] If]qjf6 k|ltj4tf ;lxt dGtJosf] lbg] Joj:yf ;lxt sfo{qmd cfof]hgf ul/Psf] lyof] . ufpF ufpFjf6 cfPsf] ;d'bfosf] pNn]Vo ;xefuLtfn] dxT;j pB]Zon] yfxf kfP eg] ko{6g Joj;foLn] lr;fkfgLsf] k|j4{g ug{sf] lgldQ k|ltj4tf JoQm u/] . o; sfo{qmdn] lr;fkfgLnfO{ g]kfndf ko{6g uGtJosf] klxrfg u/fpg d4t u/]sf] 5 lr;fkfgLdf ko{6ssf] cfudgdf j[l4 ePsf] kfO{G5 .

wfg /f]kfO{ pT;j M

g]l6kmn] Kathmandu Valley Cultural Trekking Trail k|j4{g ug]{ s|ddf c;f/ !% wfg lbj;sf] cj;/ kf/]/ wfg /f]kfO{ hfqf (Rice Planting Event) cfof]hgf u/]sf lyof} . g]kfn ko{6g jf]8{ sf7df08f} jf6 ! 306fsf] j; ofqf kZrft w'lnv]nsf] wfg /f]kfO{ ug]{ :yfgdf k'u]sf lyof} . wfg /f]kfO{ g]kfnL ls;fgsf] dxTjk"0f{ pT;j xf] elgG5 dfgf vfO{ d'/L kmnfpg] gfdn] ;d]t g]kfnL dfemdf nf]slk|o 5 . wfg /f]kfO{df g]kfnL ls;fgn] c;f/] lutsf] efvfdf v'zL / Joyf kf]Vg] ub{5g\ . o;n] klg s] yfxf x'G5 eg] wfg /f]kfO{ ls;fgsf] hghljg ;+u 3lgi6 ?kn] hf]l8Psf] 5 . To;} ul/ wfg /f]kfO{ pT;jdf, lxnf] v]Ng], wfg /f]Kg], xln x'g], jfp;] x'g], ljp pv]Ng, k~r]jfh]sf] w'g / tfndf g[To ug]{, bf]xf]/L uLt ufpg] / ysfO{ dfb}{ blx lrp/f vfg'sf] dhf j]Un} lyof] . xnuf]? ;lxtsf] wfg /f]kfO{ g]kfnL k/Dk/fut z}nLdf ul/Psf] lyof] o;sf] nfuL @ xn uf]?sf] ;d]t Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 . zx/df j;]/ cfkm\gf] lbgrof{ ljtfpg]x? h;n] ljutdf wfg /f]k]sf lyP, plgx?sf] nfuL ljutsf lbgsf] ;Demgf lbnfpg' / wfg slxn]klg g/f]k]sfnfO{ wfg s;/L /f]lkG5 dx;'; u/fpg' klg o; sfo{qmdn] d4t ug]{5 . To;}n] of] sfo{qmd dgdf]xs / /f]dfGrsf/L x'g]5 . wfg /f]kfO{ pT;j s]lx jif{ otf b]z} el/ jfXo / cfGtl/s ko{6ssf] nfuL dxTjk"0f{ pT;jsf] ?kdf dgfpb} cfPsf] kfO{G5 . of] ko{6gsf] k|f]8S6 x'g'sf] ;fy} s[lif ko{6g (Agro Tourism) k|j4{g ug{ o; ls;Ldsf] sfo{qmdn] d4t k'ofPsf] 5 .

 

:yflgo ;+:yfsf] ;+:yfut ljsf; M

g]l6kmn] ;g\ @))( :yflgo :t/sf sd{rf/L lgo'lQm ul/ sfo{qmd ;+rfng u/]sf] lyof] . ;g\ @)!)df sfo{qmdsf] bf]>f] jif{ z'? ePkl5 ;+:yfdf sfo{qmdsf] lbuf]kgfsf] jf/]df ljz]if ?kn] jx; z'? eof] o; jx;df :yflgo ;d'bfosf] ;xefuLtf ljz]if ?kdf pNn]Vo /x]sf] lyof] . ;+:yfn] ;g\ @)!) df :yflgo ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t ;+:yf lgdf{0f ug{sf] nfuL :yflgo :t/df s[oflzn /x]sf sd{rf/Lx?nfO{ cg'/f]w u/of] . ufpF ;+of]hsx?sf] s[oflzntfjf6 cfcfkm\gf] ufpFdf ;ldlt u7g ug]{ sfo{ eof] eg] g]l6kmn] ljwfg lgdf{0f ug]{ sfo{df ;xof]uL e"ldsf lgjf{xf u/of] . cfh ;Dk"0f{ sfo{ If]qdf % j6f :yflgo ;+:yfx? s[oflzn /x]sf 5g\ . :yflgo ;+:yfn] g]l6kmjf6 k|fKt >f]t dfq kl/rfng u/]g jfXo >f]t vf]hLsf] nfuL k|oTg u/of] h;n] ubf{ lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt, gu/kflnsf, ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt, g]kfn ko{6g jf]8{, ko{6g k"jf{wf/ ljsf; ;ldlt h:tf lgsfojf6 s]xL xbdf ePklg >f]t k|fKt ug{ ;kmn ePsf 5g\ .

g]l6kmn] :yflgo ;+:yf dfkm{t sfo{qmd ;+rfngsf] qmddf jftfj/0f d}lq j}sNkLs lhljsf]kfh{g sfo{qmd ;+rfng ug{sf] nfuL ;xof]u u/]sf] 5 . o; cGtu{t Rofp v]lt, cuf{lgs t/sf/L v]lt, x:tsnf Joj;fosf] nfuL 3'DtL sf]if pknJw u/fPsf] 5 . pknJw u/fPsf] sf]ifn] pTkfbgsf] sfo{ eO{/x]sf] 5 . ;g\ @)!# l8;]Dj/ kl5 g]l6kmsf] sfo{qmd km]h cfp6 ePkl5 klg pQm sf]if h'gh'g ;+:yf dfkm{t pknJw u/fPsf] xf] ;DjGwLt ;+:yfsf] dftxtdf /xg] ul/ g]l6km / :yflgo ;+:yf ljr ;dembf/L ePsf] 5 . 3'DtL sf]ifn] lgoldt ?kdf pQm /sd :yflgo ;+:yfn] kl/rfng ul/ lhljsf]kfh{g ;DjGwL sfo{nfO{ lg/Gt/tf k|bfg ug]{5g\ . 

:yflgo ;+:yfn] ljut # jif{sf] cg'ejsf] cfwf/df sfo{qmdsf] lbuf]kgfnfO{ cem ljz]if hf]8lbP/ 7f]; of]hgf jgfpg h?/L b]lvG5 . of] elg/xbf cem s] ljifodf :ki6 x'g h?/L 5 eg] ut jif{x?df em} ;j} sfo{x?df >f]t ;fwg vlr{g' eGbf lbuf]kgfnfO{ s]Gb|df /fv]/ >f]t ;fwgx?sf] kl/rfng ::yflgo ;+:yfn] ug{ ;Sof] eg] eljiodf klg sfo{qmdn] ultlng] 5 h;sf] g]t[Tj :yflgo ;+:yfx?sf] ug]{5g\ .

 

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Nepal Environment and Tourism Initiative Foundation 2013

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